Learn About Pisciculture
Pisciculture or fish culture, included under the broad term 'Aquaculture', can be defined as the 'farming and husbandry of economically important fish, under controlled conditions. Pisciculture plays an important role in the economy of West Bengal. It helps in augmenting food supply, generating employment, raising nutritional level and earning revenue.
Characters of cultivable fish
The following criteria should be considered before selecting a fish for farming purpose.
- Rate of growth: Fish which grow to a larger size in shorter period are suitable for culture. Examples Carps.
- Adaptation to climate: The cultured species of fish should be able to adapt to the local climatic conditions of the farm.
- Tolerance: The fish should have the capacity to tolerate wide fluctuations in the physico- chemical conditions such as oxygen, salinity, temperature of the water.
- Acceptance of artificial feed: When more number of fish is to be accommodated in a limited space, there is the need for supplementary feeding on compounded diets. The fish should show ready preference for these feeds.
- Resistance: It is desirable that the cultured fish is hardly enough to resist the common diseases and attack of parasites.
- Amiability and compatibility: The fishes proposed to be cultured together ('poly culture') should be able to live together without interfering or attacking the other.
- Conversion efficiency: The species of fish which give more edible flesh per unit of food consumed is preferred.
- Consumer's preference: Food preference of people varies with the geographic regions. Hence, the species cultured should be easily marketable locally or to the targeted consumers.
Some Species that are cultured by S.F.D.C LTD.
- 1) Indian Major Carp (Rohu, Catla & Mrigal)
- 2) Exotic Carp
- 2) M. Tilapia
- 3) Pangasius Sutchi
- 4) L. vannamei
- 5) Tiger Prawn
- 6) Golda
- 7) Bhagon
- 8) Bhetki
- 9) Mullet
- 10) Chanos
- 11) ilver Pompano
- 12) Crab
- 13) Parshe
- 14) Magur, Singhi & Sole
- 15) Desi Koi, V. Koi
- 16) Chital
- 17) NonaTangra
- 18) Pabda
- 19) Boroli
- 20) Thai & Sar Punti
- 21) Rupchand
Fish farming may range from ‘backyard’ subsistence ponds to large scale industrial enterprises. Farming systems can be expressed in terms of input levels.
- In extensive fish farming, economic and labour inputs are usually low. Natural food production plays a very important role, and the system’s productivity is relatively low. Fertiliser may be used to increase fertility and thus fish production. We may use organic fertiliser also.
- Semi-intensive fish farming requires a moderate level of inputs and fish production is increased by the use of fertiliser and/or supplementary feeding. This means the nutritional value of fish and the production of fish are increasing by proper
- Intensive fish farming involves a high level of inputs and stocking the ponds with as many fish as possible. The fish are fed supplementary feed, while natural food production plays a minor role.
- 1) Preparation of Pond:
- a) The pond basin is to be dried, ploughed & properly manured for the purpose.
- b) Hatchery tank, Nursery tank, rearing tankand stocking tank are to be prepared, manured and maintained well.
- c) Organic manures and compost manures are to be applied time to time.
- 2) Stocking: From nursery tank/pond the fry stages of fish are to be collected and are kept in advanced fingerlings in stocking ponds.
- 3) Feeding: For the development of the different fish species food organisms are to be applied in the ponds. Diameter of the food depends on the body weight of the different species and to calculate the diameter FCR ratio is used.
- 3) Exercise: Netting has to be done for increasing the growth of the fish. We can estimate the growth of the fish by preparing sampling reports.
- 4) Marketing: Phase-wise it would be possible to develop the whole area under Scientific Culture within a span of 5 years and possible to enhance production to a moderate level of 10-12 MT/ha./year of IMC, 6-7 MT/crop of GIFT Tilapia, 15-17 MT/ha./crop of Pangasiussutchiand 6-8 MT/ha/crop of New Diversified species etc. S.F.D.C Ltd. trades in these diversified species through Nalban Food Park and different stall as raw whole and cut fish, frozen fish, dressed fish and ready to eat fish.
Advantage of Pisciculture:
- 1) Supply necessary amount of protein in the form of fish meat.
- 2) Protection of fishes from extinction.
- 3) Maintenance of the balance of the ecosystem in the pond and lake.
- 4) Upgrade the economic condition of the state as well as the country.